The Iguazu Falls is waterfalls of the Iguazu River on the border of the Argentine province of Misiones and the Brazilian state of Paraná.
They are the largest waterfalls system in the world. The falls divide the river into the upper and lower Iguazu.
The Iguazu River rises near the city of Curitiba. For most of its course, the river flows through Brazil; however, most of the falls are on the Argentine side. Below its confluence with the San Antonio River, the Iguazu River forms the boundary between Argentina and Brazil.
Any student who volunteers and completes a series of requirements known as the “comp” is elected an editor of the newspaper. Thus, all staff members of The Crimson—including writers, business staff, photographers, and graphic designers—are technically “editors”. (If an editor makes news, he or she is referred to in the paper’s news article as a “Crimson editor”, which, though important for transparency, also leads to characterizations such as “former President John F. Kennedy ’40, who was also a Crimson editor, ended the Cuban Missile Crisis.”)
Editorial and financial decisions rest in a board of executives, collectively called a “guard”, who are chosen for one-year terms each November by the outgoing guard. This process is referred to as the “turkey shoot” or the “shoot”. The unsigned opinions of “The Crimson Staff” are decided at tri-weekly meetings that are open to any Crimson editor (except those editors who plan to write or edit a news story on the same topic in the future).
The Crimson is almost the only college newspaper in the U.S. that owns its own printing presses. At the beginning of 2004 The Crimson began publishing with a full-color front and back page, in conjunction with the launch of a major redesign. The Crimson also prints over fifteen other publications on its presses.
The Crimson has a rivalry with the Harvard Lampoon, which it refers to in print as a “semi-secret Sorrento Square social organization that used to occasionally publish a so-called humor magazine”. “Young Rich pens book deal”, is one example of this running joke: “Penning books in the humor category seems fitting because Rich, as the statement takes care to mention, is the president of the Harvard Lampoon, a semi-secret Sorrento Square social organization that used to occasionally publish a so-called humor magazine.” The two organizations occupy buildings within less than one block of each other; interaction between their staff has included pranks, vandalism, and even romance.
Crimson alumni include Presidents John F. Kennedy of the Class of 1940 (who served as a business editor) and Franklin D. Roosevelt (who served as president of the newspaper), Class of 1904. Writer Cleveland Amory was president of The Crimson; when Katharine Hepburn’s mother asked him what he planned to do after college, he says he replied teasingly that “once you had been president of The Harvard Crimson in your senior year at Harvard there was very little, in after life, for you.”
Currently, The Crimson publishes two weekly pullout sections in addition to its regular daily paper: an Arts section on Tuesdays and a magazine called Fifteen Minutes on Thursdays.
The Crimson is a nonprofit organization that is independent of the university. All decisions on the content and day-to-day operations of the newspaper are made by undergraduates. The student leaders of the newspaper employ several non-student staff, many of whom have stayed on for many years and have come to be thought of as family members by the students who run the paper.
The Crimson is composed of 10 boards: Arts, Business, News, Sports, Editorial, Blog, Design, Fifteen Minutes, Multimedia, and Technology.
This step-by-step guide will help you get a website up and running with WordPress*, installed on an Amazon EC2 virtual machine (also known as an “instance”). You will go through how to configure and launch an EC2 instance, how to get your WordPress username and password, and how to log into your WordPress admin portal. Everything done in this tutorial is free-tier eligible.
Open the AWS Management Console and you can keep this step-by-step guide open. When the screen loads, enter your user name and password to get started. Then find EC2 underCompute, and double click to open the dashboard.
Step 1: Launch an Amazon EC2 Instance
Now you are in the EC2 dashboard, click Launch Instance from the dashboard to create and configure your virtual machine.
Step 2: Configure your Instance
Now you’re in the Amazon EC2 configuration wizard, we will be using an existing Amazon Machine Image (AMI) from the AWS Marketplace that has WordPress already installed. The AWS Marketplace provides access to thousands of pre-configured images for common pieces of software.
1. Click on AWS Marketplace on the left-hand side, search for WordPress, look forWordPress powered by BitNami, then click Select.
2. You will be presented a detailed pricing page. In this case, the price will be $0.00 for the software regardless of the size of the instance that you use.
Scroll to the bottom and click Continue.
3. For this tutorial, we will be using a free-tier eligible t2.micro instance. Click on t2.micro in the Type column (it should be the first one), then click Next: Configure Instance Details. It may take a few seconds to load.
On the following screens, click Next: Add Storage and then Next: Tag Instance.
4. We will set a name for your instance in this step. Enter WordPress in the Value box next to the Name box. Click Review and Launch to continue.
5. You can review your instance configurations, then click Launch when you’re ready to start your Amazon EC2 instance running WordPress.
6. The next screen deals with key-pairs. Key-pairs are how you can connect to your EC2 instances via a terminal program using Secure Shell (SSH). Select Proceed without a key pair, and check the box acknowledging that you know you need this key to access your EC2 instance.
Click Launch Instances to launch your instance. Be aware that starting the instance up may take a few minutes.
Note: To connect to your instance directly, you will need to create a new key pair. For instructions on creating a key pair and connecting to an instance, see steps 2 d.-2 f. and 3 of the tutorial: Launch a Linux Virtual Machine.
7. Click ViewInstances on the bottom right of the page (you may need to scroll down to see it). Then select the WordPress instance, make sure the Instance State says running. If Instance State says launching then AWS is still preparing your WordPress instance.
8. Once your instance is running, you can now test your WordPress website. Find thePublic IP for your instance at the bottom of this page.
9. Copy the Public IPinto a new tab in your web browser, and you should see a Hello Worldblog page appear.
Step 3: Make Changes to Your Website
Now that you have your WordPress site up and running, it’s time to log into its administration page so you can customize your site. To find your password, please follow the steps below:
1. Switch back to your EC2 management console in your web browser. Select WordPressinstance, and click the Actions button. In the drop down menu, select Instance Setting, and choose Get System Log.
2. In the system log window, scroll through to the bottom to find the password that’ssurrounded by hash marks.
3. Now that you have your password, switch back to the tab that you used to access the WordPress Hello World page. Add /admin to the end of the URL so it looks something like188.8.131.52/admin. Hit enter.
Enter the Username user and the Password that you read from the log file.
Congratulations! You now have your WordPress site up and running. You can now manage, customize, and configure it as you like.
Now that you have your WordPress site up and running. You need to make it easy for people to get to. In the next tutorial we’ll register a domain name for your website so people can find it easily, and we’ll connect that domain name to your currently running instance.
As your vehicle approaches campus from any direction, you will begin to follow signs and traffic personnel directing you to campus parking. Once parked, you will board a free bus that will transport you to the Crescent side of Schoellkopf Stadium. Upon arrival at the stadium Crescent, you will exit the bus and walk 100′ to entrances into the Crescent (all bleachers).
Accessibility: Guests who cannot board/ride buses, or walk 100′ unassisted, or navigate stairs, or sit in bleachers without back support should request an Accessibility Plan to accommodate parking & seating needs.
Ah, the concertmaster. That confident violinist who strides across the stage after everyone else, lifts her bow, waits for an oboe to sound ‘A’ and tunes the orchestra. When the conductor strides out, the concertmaster is the only one who gets to shake her hand. And when everyone is seated, the conductor raises the baton and lets the beat drop. You try to enjoy the music, but you have all these questions gnawing at the deepest roots of your brain. What’s the relationship between the concertmaster and the conductor? Did I leave the pastry balls for my Saturday night croquembouche in the oven? And why is the concertmaster always a violinist?
We can’t help you with the logistics for preparing extravagant desserts, but we can try to get to the bottom of why the concertmaster is always a violinist. We’re also getting a little help from University of Louisville School of Music professor Acton Sterling, who in 1973, wrote a fascinating article about the evolution of the conductor. And yes, we have to discuss conducting because, as you’ll learn, you can’t talk about concertmasters without talking about baton-masters.
During the Baroque era, harpsichords were a staple of orchestral ensembles. As a chordal instrument, they could fully realize the harmony of the piece. So composers began to sit at the harpsichord bench to keep things running smoothly as best they could. It was an amazing development, and composers like C.P.E. Bach swore by its effectiveness. But this method of directing did have some problems.
Namely, playing the harpsichord well requires keeping both hands on the keys, and nodding one’s head in lieu of conducting can only get your point across so far. But it was the best the orchestra had, at least until the violins came along.
Toward the end of the 17th century, there was a wave of talented violinists, who also happened to be masterful composers. Think of composers like Corelli:
They weren’t just bringing the big hair, they were bringing wild and fresh violin sound. Like their harspichording counterparts, the best of these virtuoso violinists (i.e., the ones sitting in the first chair) also conducted as they played their instruments. And it was a lot easier than doing so from a keyboard. They could move with their violins to mark time without breaking up their playing. If things got really out of hand, they could even use their bows — like, I don’t know, a baton? — to set the record straight.
When it came to some (read: non-French) opera or orchestral work that employed choirs, concertmasters and harpsichord-directors split responsibilities. The composer at the harpsichord would provide the figured bass and assistance to the singers, while the concertmaster would lead the instrumentalists. This might seem like a perfectly fine arrangement, but imagine the most devilishly diva conductor out there, and then double it. Having two conductors inevitably led to some clashes, in part because the male ego can be an embarrassingly fragile thing. Orchestras could be divided, with some members connecting with the concertmaster and others hanging with the harpsichord.
Spoiler alert: The concertmasters won out. A major reason for this was because composers began to write more harmonically robust music that didn’t require lugging a harpsichord around. And since violinists weren’t going anywhere, the concertmaster became the orchestra’s player-coach. You’d see the concertmaster strike up the orchestra, get the party started and then settle into a playing role.
But the road to becoming a player-coach was a long one, so let’s get back to the history of that decision. Back in the 18th century, as the violinist and Cardiff University professor Robin Stowell notes, the concertmaster had to be not only talented, but charismatic (so as to gain the allegiance of the other musicians) and capable of realizing the emotional nuances of a composer’s work (a conductor’s job), maintaining tempo and developing the skills of the orchestra’s other musicians. Oh, and they were dismally compensated for their work.
Toward the end of the 18th century, concertmasters were finding themselves in the same predicament as the old klavierists: it was getting harder to play well and conduct at the same time. Orchestras were getting bigger, music was getting more complex and they found themselves relying on the bow to direct musicians more and more. The fix? Relieve the concertmaster of conducting duties entirely and appoint a dedicated director to lead the orchestra, so that the principal violinist could focus on the music.
Today, we still have the concertmaster, although its role is quite different than its baroque counterpart. Today, the concertmaster tunes the orchestra, plays solo passages and specifies how the violin parts should be played, and acts as a liaison between the conductor and musicians. They may also assume the role of conductor in circumstances call for it.
To complicate things further, I should add that violinists aren’t always the concertmasters. There are exceptions. Stowell points to the words of composer Johann Joachim Quantz, who said that concertmasters weren’t violinists “by right,” but that appointing a violinist was preferable to most other musicians. Composer, conductor and Columbia University professor Carl Bettendorf agrees. “Since Baroque orchestras consisted largely of strings,” he said in a message to WQXR, “it makes sense that in most cases, the first violinist would lead.” Bettendorf also noted that if a piece doesn’t require violins, then there wouldn’t be a violinist concertmaster. He cited Bach’s Brandenburg Concerto No. 6 and Brahms’ second serenade as two works that omit violins, and therefore in which the principal violist assumes the role of concertmaster.
If you are lamenting the fact that you were born a few centuries late to see a concert led purely by the concertmaster, don’t worry. It’s not as common, but it does still happen. Here’s a peek at the concertmaster of the Philadelphia Orchestra, David Kim, leading a rehearsal for Grieg’s “Holberg” Suite, in 2014.
So there you have it. The concertmaster has long history that laid the work for the principal violinist to shine. But if the concertmaster were chosen on basis of instrument coolness, I think we can all agree it would be the contrabassoon leading the way.
수백 년의 역사를 가진 명품 바이올린의 소리는 현대 악기와 정말 다를까. 17세기에 출생한 이탈리아 장인 안토니오 스트라디바리가 만든 ‘스트라디바리우스’(사진)는 현대 악기와 달리 전 음역의 소리가 균형을 이루며, 음량이 크고 음색이 예리해 소리가 잘 퍼져나가는 것으로 알려져 있다. 세계적인 명기(名器)로 꼽히는 이유다. 그런데 최근 연주자와 청중 모두 오래된 스트라디바리우스보다 현대의 새 바이올린 소리를 더 선호하는 것으로 나타났다.
클로디아 프리츠 프랑스 피에르마리퀴리대(파리 제6대) 장르롱달랑베르연구소 교수팀은 스트라디바리우스 3대와 새 바이올린 3대를 대상으로 한 블라인드 테스트 결과를 국제학술지 ‘미국국립과학원회보(PNAS)’ 8일자에 발표했다. 프리츠 교수는 “대부분은 스트라디바리우스와 새 바이올린의 소리를 구분하지 못했고, 새 바이올린의 소리가 더 풍부하고 듣기 좋다고 답했다”고 밝혔다. 현악기는 300∼400년 후 진가를 발휘한다는 기존 정설을 뒤집는 결과다. 스트라디바리우스는 현재 세계적으로 약 650대가 남아 있다.
연구진은 프랑스 파리에 위치한 300석의 음악홀과 미국 뉴욕에 위치한 860석의 음악홀에서 각각 음악에 식견이 있는 청중 55명과 82명을 대상으로 실험했다. 6대의 바이올린 중 무작위로 2대를 선택해 들려준 뒤 어떤 악기의 소리가 얼마나 더 듣기 좋고(조음과 음색), 얼마나 더 청명하게 잘 울려 퍼지는지(음향 방사도) 조사했다. 연주는 이자 수잰 허우, 나리타 다쓰키 등 7명의 세계적인 바이올리니스트가 맡았다. 연주자들 역시 안대를 착용하게 해 악기를 구별하지 못하도록 했다.
조사 결과 청중은 스트라디바리우스보다 새 바이올린의 음향 방사도가 더 우수하고 조음과 음색 등을 고려할 때 소리도 더 좋게 들린다고 평가했다.