As your vehicle approaches campus from any direction, you will begin to follow signs and traffic personnel directing you to campus parking. Once parked, you will board a free bus that will transport you to the Crescent side of Schoellkopf Stadium. Upon arrival at the stadium Crescent, you will exit the bus and walk 100′ to entrances into the Crescent (all bleachers).
Accessibility: Guests who cannot board/ride buses, or walk 100′ unassisted, or navigate stairs, or sit in bleachers without back support should request an Accessibility Plan to accommodate parking & seating needs.
Ah, the concertmaster. That confident violinist who strides across the stage after everyone else, lifts her bow, waits for an oboe to sound ‘A’ and tunes the orchestra. When the conductor strides out, the concertmaster is the only one who gets to shake her hand. And when everyone is seated, the conductor raises the baton and lets the beat drop. You try to enjoy the music, but you have all these questions gnawing at the deepest roots of your brain. What’s the relationship between the concertmaster and the conductor? Did I leave the pastry balls for my Saturday night croquembouche in the oven? And why is the concertmaster always a violinist?
We can’t help you with the logistics for preparing extravagant desserts, but we can try to get to the bottom of why the concertmaster is always a violinist. We’re also getting a little help from University of Louisville School of Music professor Acton Sterling, who in 1973, wrote a fascinating article about the evolution of the conductor. And yes, we have to discuss conducting because, as you’ll learn, you can’t talk about concertmasters without talking about baton-masters.
During the Baroque era, harpsichords were a staple of orchestral ensembles. As a chordal instrument, they could fully realize the harmony of the piece. So composers began to sit at the harpsichord bench to keep things running smoothly as best they could. It was an amazing development, and composers like C.P.E. Bach swore by its effectiveness. But this method of directing did have some problems.
Namely, playing the harpsichord well requires keeping both hands on the keys, and nodding one’s head in lieu of conducting can only get your point across so far. But it was the best the orchestra had, at least until the violins came along.
Toward the end of the 17th century, there was a wave of talented violinists, who also happened to be masterful composers. Think of composers like Corelli:
They weren’t just bringing the big hair, they were bringing wild and fresh violin sound. Like their harspichording counterparts, the best of these virtuoso violinists (i.e., the ones sitting in the first chair) also conducted as they played their instruments. And it was a lot easier than doing so from a keyboard. They could move with their violins to mark time without breaking up their playing. If things got really out of hand, they could even use their bows — like, I don’t know, a baton? — to set the record straight.
When it came to some (read: non-French) opera or orchestral work that employed choirs, concertmasters and harpsichord-directors split responsibilities. The composer at the harpsichord would provide the figured bass and assistance to the singers, while the concertmaster would lead the instrumentalists. This might seem like a perfectly fine arrangement, but imagine the most devilishly diva conductor out there, and then double it. Having two conductors inevitably led to some clashes, in part because the male ego can be an embarrassingly fragile thing. Orchestras could be divided, with some members connecting with the concertmaster and others hanging with the harpsichord.
Spoiler alert: The concertmasters won out. A major reason for this was because composers began to write more harmonically robust music that didn’t require lugging a harpsichord around. And since violinists weren’t going anywhere, the concertmaster became the orchestra’s player-coach. You’d see the concertmaster strike up the orchestra, get the party started and then settle into a playing role.
But the road to becoming a player-coach was a long one, so let’s get back to the history of that decision. Back in the 18th century, as the violinist and Cardiff University professor Robin Stowell notes, the concertmaster had to be not only talented, but charismatic (so as to gain the allegiance of the other musicians) and capable of realizing the emotional nuances of a composer’s work (a conductor’s job), maintaining tempo and developing the skills of the orchestra’s other musicians. Oh, and they were dismally compensated for their work.
Toward the end of the 18th century, concertmasters were finding themselves in the same predicament as the old klavierists: it was getting harder to play well and conduct at the same time. Orchestras were getting bigger, music was getting more complex and they found themselves relying on the bow to direct musicians more and more. The fix? Relieve the concertmaster of conducting duties entirely and appoint a dedicated director to lead the orchestra, so that the principal violinist could focus on the music.
Today, we still have the concertmaster, although its role is quite different than its baroque counterpart. Today, the concertmaster tunes the orchestra, plays solo passages and specifies how the violin parts should be played, and acts as a liaison between the conductor and musicians. They may also assume the role of conductor in circumstances call for it.
To complicate things further, I should add that violinists aren’t always the concertmasters. There are exceptions. Stowell points to the words of composer Johann Joachim Quantz, who said that concertmasters weren’t violinists “by right,” but that appointing a violinist was preferable to most other musicians. Composer, conductor and Columbia University professor Carl Bettendorf agrees. “Since Baroque orchestras consisted largely of strings,” he said in a message to WQXR, “it makes sense that in most cases, the first violinist would lead.” Bettendorf also noted that if a piece doesn’t require violins, then there wouldn’t be a violinist concertmaster. He cited Bach’s Brandenburg Concerto No. 6 and Brahms’ second serenade as two works that omit violins, and therefore in which the principal violist assumes the role of concertmaster.
If you are lamenting the fact that you were born a few centuries late to see a concert led purely by the concertmaster, don’t worry. It’s not as common, but it does still happen. Here’s a peek at the concertmaster of the Philadelphia Orchestra, David Kim, leading a rehearsal for Grieg’s “Holberg” Suite, in 2014.
So there you have it. The concertmaster has long history that laid the work for the principal violinist to shine. But if the concertmaster were chosen on basis of instrument coolness, I think we can all agree it would be the contrabassoon leading the way.
수백 년의 역사를 가진 명품 바이올린의 소리는 현대 악기와 정말 다를까. 17세기에 출생한 이탈리아 장인 안토니오 스트라디바리가 만든 ‘스트라디바리우스’(사진)는 현대 악기와 달리 전 음역의 소리가 균형을 이루며, 음량이 크고 음색이 예리해 소리가 잘 퍼져나가는 것으로 알려져 있다. 세계적인 명기(名器)로 꼽히는 이유다. 그런데 최근 연주자와 청중 모두 오래된 스트라디바리우스보다 현대의 새 바이올린 소리를 더 선호하는 것으로 나타났다.
클로디아 프리츠 프랑스 피에르마리퀴리대(파리 제6대) 장르롱달랑베르연구소 교수팀은 스트라디바리우스 3대와 새 바이올린 3대를 대상으로 한 블라인드 테스트 결과를 국제학술지 ‘미국국립과학원회보(PNAS)’ 8일자에 발표했다. 프리츠 교수는 “대부분은 스트라디바리우스와 새 바이올린의 소리를 구분하지 못했고, 새 바이올린의 소리가 더 풍부하고 듣기 좋다고 답했다”고 밝혔다. 현악기는 300∼400년 후 진가를 발휘한다는 기존 정설을 뒤집는 결과다. 스트라디바리우스는 현재 세계적으로 약 650대가 남아 있다.
연구진은 프랑스 파리에 위치한 300석의 음악홀과 미국 뉴욕에 위치한 860석의 음악홀에서 각각 음악에 식견이 있는 청중 55명과 82명을 대상으로 실험했다. 6대의 바이올린 중 무작위로 2대를 선택해 들려준 뒤 어떤 악기의 소리가 얼마나 더 듣기 좋고(조음과 음색), 얼마나 더 청명하게 잘 울려 퍼지는지(음향 방사도) 조사했다. 연주는 이자 수잰 허우, 나리타 다쓰키 등 7명의 세계적인 바이올리니스트가 맡았다. 연주자들 역시 안대를 착용하게 해 악기를 구별하지 못하도록 했다.
조사 결과 청중은 스트라디바리우스보다 새 바이올린의 음향 방사도가 더 우수하고 조음과 음색 등을 고려할 때 소리도 더 좋게 들린다고 평가했다.
The following article applies to sellers with Professional selling plans only.
The Buy Box is the box on a product detail page where customers can begin the purchasing process by adding items to their shopping carts.
A key feature of the Amazon website is that multiple sellers can offer the same product. If more than one eligible seller offers a product, they may compete for the Buy Box for that product.
To give customers the best possible shopping experience, sellers must meet performance-based requirements to be eligible to compete for Buy Box placement. For many sellers, Buy Box placement can lead to increased sales.
Become Buy Box eligible
What is the Buy Box?
The Buy Box is the display on a product detail page with the Add to Cart button that customers can use to add items to their shopping carts. When one of your listed items appears as the default on the product page, you “win” the Buy Box, increasing your chances of selling that item.
Note: Becoming eligible to win the Buy Box doesn’t guarantee that you will win it; that said, there are a few things you can do to increase your chances. To learn more, see Winning the Buy Box.
How can I become eligible?
If you’re a Fulfillment by Amazon (FBA) seller, you’re automatically eligible to win the Buy Box. If you’re not, you must meet all of the conditions listed below. Amazon does not guarantee placement in the Buy Box.
Type of selling account: You must have a professional account. Here’s how you can upgrade.
I am honored to begin my service today as Cornell University’s 14th president and to join all of you in shaping the future of this distinguished institution. The Board of Trustees has entrusted me with a great responsibility, and I will do my utmost to deserve their confidence and yours.
I am grateful to Hunter and Elizabeth Rawlings, who have brought enlightened leadership and their personal warmth to the university over more than two decades, including during some very difficult times. My husband, Ken Gottschlich, and I have learned so much from them, and we wish them all the best as they pick up their long-deferred retirement plans.
Like five previous Cornell presidents, I come to Cornell from the University of Michigan, which shares many of Cornell’s fundamental values: its commitment to discovery through research, scholarship and creative activity; its dedication to teaching and learning; its belief in egalitarianism and in the importance of diversity; and its determination to serve the greater good through public engagement.
With its deep academic and cultural roots in Ithaca and its expanding presence in New York City, Cornell is at an exciting moment, with burgeoning intellectual collaborations across all its campuses that are creating, curating and communicating knowledge and providing unrivaled opportunities for teaching, learning, and societal contribution.
Over the next weeks and months, I will be learning from you about the full breadth and depth of Cornell. I am looking forward to our work together and, with your help, to making Cornell an even more distinguished and distinctive university.
Harvard Book Store is an independent and locally owned seller of used, new, and bargain books in Cambridge‘s Harvard Square.
Harvard Book Store was established in 1932 by Mark Kramer, father of longtime owner Frank Kramer, and originally sold used textbooks to students.
Family-owned for over seventy-five years, the store was sold in the fall of 2008 to Jeffrey Mayersohn and Linda Seamonson of Wellesley, Massachusetts, and remains an independent business.
Though often confused with the Harvard Coop, the store has no affiliation with Harvard University or the Harvard Coop bookstore, which is managed by Barnes & Noble. With a focus on an academic and intellectual audience, the store’s selection and customer service is repeatedly honored by local publications and surveys.
Forbes named the book store as its top bookshop in its “World’s Top Shops 2005” list.
In 1957, a group of Harvard students came together and invested in the model, “for students, by students”.
Since then, this small group of undergrads has grown from makeshift businesses out of their dorm rooms to Harvard Student Agencies (HSA), the largest student-run company in the world. (yes, we were pre-Mark Zuckerberg!) Today, HSA is a non-profit company with 15 different agencies (of which The Harvard Shop is one!), 500 employees, and is still run by college students.
From high-quality glassware to bestselling t-shirts, each product is hand-picked by our team and packed and shipped to you by a Harvard student. Even the models you see on this website are all college students at Harvard!
Each design is crafted intentionally – complementing the Harvard alumni, faculty, students, and visitors we serve, capturing the classic essence of Harvard, its tradition, its history, and its timelessness. All profits go straight back into student wages and operations, so you know where your money is going, always.